Dropbox der Horror aus Datenschutzgründen: Warum man Dropbox in Unternehmen nicht einsetzen sollte?

Einer der am weitesten verbreitete Cloud-Speicherdienst auf der Welt ist Dropbox. Aber auch kein Wunder, die einfache und übersichtliche Benutzeroberfläche von Dropbox hat dazu geführt, dass eine große Anzahl von Anwender das Service nutzen. Punkten konnte Dropbox vor allem bei Schülern und Studenten, diese nutzen das Service für die Ablage und den Austausch. Schüler und Studenten treten früher oder später auch in die Arbeitswelt ein und ihre gewohnten Arbeitsweisen finden auch Einzug in den beruflichen Alltag.

Gefahr der Schatten-IT

Was aber den wenigsten wirklich bewusst ist, der unkontrollierte Einsatz von Cloud-Services durch die Mitarbeiter stellt für ein Unternehmen ein Risiko dar. Es geht hier nicht nur darum, dass die Unternehmen nicht kontrollieren kann, welche Dienste verwendet werden, es besteht auch keine Möglichkeit der Einflussnahme oder Überwachung, welche Daten dort abgelegt werden. Es könnte alles sein, von einfachen Notizen, über Passwörter – eigene und von Kundensystemen – bis hin zu Personaldaten und Informationen aus der Buchhaltung.

Die IT des Unternehmens hat keinerlei Kontrolle. Es können nur Richtlinien an die Mitarbeiter kommuniziert und gehofft werden, dass diese sich auch daranhalten. Ein Problem entsteht, wenn ein Mitarbeiter das Unternehmen verlässt:

Dem Unternehmen können Daten verloren gehen.

Daten verbleiben im Cloud-Speicher und werden nicht gelöscht, da die eigene IT nichts von der Datenablage weiß und auch keinen Zugriff darauf hat.

Wo sind die Daten gespeichert?

Eine Privatperson macht sich kaum Gedanken darüber, wo die Daten gespeichert werden, kann für Unternehmen ein entscheidendes Kriterium für die Auswahl eines Anbieters darstellen. Es macht rechtlich einen Unterschied, ob die Unternehmensdaten in den USA oder in Europa abgelegt werden. Dropbox setzt in puncto Hosting auf Amazon S3 Cloud. Amazon gilt mit seinen S3 als einer der größten Cloud-Anbieter und bietet hohe Ausfallssicherheit und schnelle Anbindungen, jedoch befinden sich alle S3-Data-Center in den Vereinigten Staaten, somit liegen auch alle Daten von Dropbox dort.

Das bedeutet vor allem, dass die Daten nicht nach den Datenschutzrichtlinien der EU verarbeitet und gespeichert werden. Mit der Aufhebung des Safe-Harbor-Abkommen durch den europäischen Gerichtshof am 6. Oktober 2015 ist die Übertragung von schützenswerten Daten (wie personenbezogene Daten) an oder durch Unternehmen in den USA nicht mehr genehmigungsfrei.

Zusätzlich zu dem Problem mit der Ablage der Daten außerhalb der EU werden Daten bei Dropbox bei der Löschung durch den Nutzer nicht zwangsläufig wirklich gelöscht. Laut Nutzungsbedingungen werden Daten auch weiterhin aufbewahrt, für den Fall, dass Behörden im Zuge von Strafverfolgungsmaßnahmen darauf Zugriff verlangen oder dass die Daten für Dropbox weiterhin von Nutzen sind. Aus den Backups, welche Dropbox von den Daten anfertigt, werden die Daten einzelner Benutzer auch nicht gelöscht

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Zugriff durch Dritte

Ein weiteres Problem ist, dass man auch nicht einsehen kann, wer eventuell noch Zugriff auf diese Daten hat. Ordner lassen sich bei Dropbox schnell freigeben und der Versand von Freigabelinks, über welche dauerhaft auf einzelne Ordner oder den gesamten Dropbox-Speicher zugegriffen werden kann, geht genauso einfach. Eine solche Freigabe kann leicht zum Verhängnis werden, wenn bei einer späteren Ablage von Daten nicht daran gedacht hat, diese Freigabe rückgängig zu machen. Vor allem die Freigabelinks werden in der Dropbox-Oberfläche sehr leicht übersehen und falls diese mit einem Computer synchronisiert werden noch leichter.

Weiteres bedenklich ist, dass es auch keine Passwortrichtlinien gibt, die eingehalten werden müssen. So ist es verlockend einfache Passwörter, wie „12345“ oder „Passwort“ zu verwenden, wofür man nicht mal einen Hacker benötigt, um diese zu erraten.

Es besteht auch noch die Gefahr, dass Dritte durch Schwachstellen oder Apps Zugriff auf die Daten bekommen. Drittanbieter-Apps für Smartphones oder Tablets bieten oft die Möglichkeit, Daten der App direkt auf Dropbox zu speichern. Hier wird die Authentifizierung gegen Dropbox durch die App durchgeführt und somit der App-Zugriff auf den Dropboxspeicher gewährt.

Fazit: Clouddienste und Datenschutz

Im Arbeitsalltag kann die Nutzung von Clouddiensten kaum verhindert werden, jedoch sollte Sie Ihre Mitarbeiter unterstützen und eigene, professionelle Cloud-Lösung anbieten. Microsoft bietet mit OneDrive for Business und Office 365 eine geeignete Plattform, dazu betreibt der Softwareriese auch bereits mehrere Datenzentren in Europa
. Autotask bietet mit Autotask Workplace ebenfalls eine professionelle File Sync und Share Lösung an, die Rechenzentrum dafür stehen ebenfalls in Europa. Aber auch Dropbox bietet mit Dropbox Business eine Lösung für Unternehmen an, Rechenzentrum für die Lösung sollen noch 2016 in Europa entstehen. Diese drei Lösungen ermöglichen Unternehmen, die Kontrolle über die Accounts und Daten zu behalten und bieten aber den Anwendern gleichzeitig die Freiheit und Usability, die sie von den Consumer-Produkten gewohnt sind.